Nink wrote:Before I answer the question in regards to the makeup of the ~3*10^15 kg per year, and how something of such mass could enter our atmosphere relatively undetected, I would like to ask a couple of questions please.
1) Where did the ~1,386,000,000 cu km that scientists currently estimate or 1.386*10^21 kg of water on earth originate from?
2) If the earth has remained the same size but the oceans according
to previously posted data, managed to rise and fall ~250 m over the past 200 million years, and if we assume this information is correct, where did that volume of water come from, and where did it go?
Ch. 7 - The Earth-Moon-Sun System – The Earth’s Size and Shape
pg. 186 (3 of 32)
Ancient Measurements Earth’s shape is similar to a sphere. A sphere is a round, three-dimensional object, the surface of which is the same distance from the center in all directions. Even ancient astronomers knew that Earth is spherical in shape [appeal to ‘ancient’ authority]. We have pictures of Earth from space that show us that it is spherical [appeal to NAS-holery], but how could astronomers from long ago have learned this? They used evidence from observations.
Aristotle was one of these early astronomers. He made three different observations that indicated that Earth’s shape is spherical. First, as shown in Figure 1, no matter where you are on Earth, objects fall straight down to the surface, as if they are falling toward the center of a sphere. Second, Earth’s shadow on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is always curved. If Earth weren’t spherical, this might not always be the case. For example, a flat disk casts a straight-edged shadow sometimes. Finally, people in different parts of the world see different stars above their horizons. More specifically, the pole star Polaris is lower in the sky at some locations on Earth than at others.
IceCube – South Pole Neutrino Observatory
IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless subatomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter and could reveal the physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.
The good old days. In 1666, when Isaac Newton [“]discovered[“] his law of gravity, people did not need to understand the calculus that Newton [had claimed he’d] invented so he could calculate the orbit of the moon. It was enough [, for the unwashed masses,] to know that there is a universal force that causes apples to fall to the ground and that this same force holds the moon in its orbit around the earth. There was nothing paradoxical [(if by paradoxical you mean sensible)] about this concept; indeed it explained [away] so many things that the poet Alexander Pope wrote as Newton’s epitaph:
Nature and Nature’s laws lay hid in night.
God said, “Let Newton be!” And all was light.
Gravity: from weightlessness to curvature
In part, gravity is an illusion. In part, it is associated with a quantity called "curvature". Overall, gravity is intimately connected with the geometry of space and time.
The elusiveness of gravity
Most readers will have seen footage showing situations like this, involving, for instance, astronauts aboard the international space station ISS. Those astronauts haven't escaped the earth's gravity - they're experiencing a very special kind of free fall, a free-falling orbit around the earth
The elusiveness of curvature
But in spite of the differences in geometry, the following still holds: If you look at a tiny region of the sphere's surface, you'll be hard-pressed to find a difference between it and the corresponding region on a plane. In fact, that's what we do every day: We draw city maps, which show a comparatively small part of the earth's surface, just as if the city had the same geometry as that flat sheet of paper we're drawing on:
This works quite well, although, in reality, the city region is part not of a gigantic plane, but of the surface of a gigantic sphere, the earth. Only when you look at larger regions will you notice that the surface is, in fact, curved; the larger the region, the more distinct the signs of curvature.
hoi.polloi wrote:What is gravity?
Flat Earth Theorists believe it is simply caused by mutual acceleration of the entire Earth, which is physically flat, and constantly going faster and faster "up".
Painterman wrote:This question is worth another look after the recent chirp (or thud) we're told proved Einstein at a $1.1 billion observatory.hoi.polloi wrote:What is gravity?
Gravity is a force of attraction between all material objects that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (Admittedly, this doesn't really explain what gravity "is" - but that remains an unknown, in my opinion.)
The foregoing is what's called an "operational definition". This type of definition defines a concept by what is actually measured (force, in this case). Such definitions are useful when dealing with bad-faith purveyors of junk science, because these phonies typically base their pitch on "special effects" rhetoric and can't handle arguments framed in terms of empirical observation.
Whenever this force has been sought between known masses in the lab, it has been found as expected. I've never seen a counterexample cited by any "gravity denier" (apologies to George Orwell).
Whether, and in what way, this force exists in "outer space" is another question, because independent confirmation in this area is nearly impossible.
- CMI suppose I'm not the only one who thinks someone could set off a small rocket in that ("nuclear bomb" proof) vacuum chamber & help answer a serious question that Cluesforum & others have raised?
pov603 wrote:I thought the biggest vacuum chamber in the world was between Brian Cox's ears?...
Farcevalue wrote:So, the apple falls from the tree, due to the same force that keeps the moon in place relative to the earth, but the astronots in between the apple and the moon have escaped that force.
Of course Cavendish had to have balls to get a constant out of this.
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