To fully appreciate the myth of the man-made satellite, we must focus on Edward Appleton, the British astro-physicist from the early part of the 20th century. Appleton is (in)famous for his research on the ionosphere.
The ionosphere is an ionised (electrically-charged) layer of the earth's atmosphere. The original research on the ionosphere was carried out by respected scientists including Heaviside, Kennelly, Breit and Tuve. Research that was then purloined by Appleton.
Appleton weaved several Big Lies into that valid research and presented it as 'progress'. It was to pave the way for the Great Satellite Hoax. Appleton was a key player in the fraud. In 1947, Appleton was undeservedly awarded a Nobel Prize for his bogus contribution to science.Founding Father of the Great Satellite Hoax
Professor Sir Edward Victor Appleton, GBE, KCB, FRSAppleton weaved Big Lies into valid ionospheric research
The original ionosphere studies by Kennelly, Heaviside et. al, were spurred by Marconi's success at bridging the Atlantic with his wireless apparatus. Right back in 1901 it was realised that the curvature of the earth meant that a mechanism other than ground wave propagation must be responsible for Marconi's successful radio transmission from Cornwall to Newfoundland.
A century later, we universally recognise that Marconi's radio signal was propagated not by ground wave, but via a 'sky-wave' path in the ionospheric region of the earth's atmosphere.Proof of ionospheric radiowave propagation (circa 1925)
(Breit & Tuve's method for establishing the altitudes of ionospheric layers)
In those early studies of ionospheric radiowave propagation, another layer of the ionosphere (the F layer) had just been discovered. The F layer was found to be critical to radiowave propagation at higher frequencies. Coincidentally, these are the very frequencies used by "geostationary comms satellites" today.
In 1931, Appleton gave a lecture in which he reported that the newly-discovered F layer of the ionosphere had been determined (by others!) using ionosonde probing
to have an altitude of some 370km ±50km. A remarkably similar altitude range to that claimed for the International Space Station. Another coincidence?
Comical NASA diagram on ionospheric radiowave propagation (click for original)
Much ionospheric research remains classified to this day, sadly preventing categoric verification, but the implications here are huge.
A microwave signal at a suitably high frequency directed at the maximum obtuse angle of incidence
into the ionospheric F layer will be refracted back to earth with very little attenuation, where it can be received over a wide footprint.
A rudimentary formula for ionospheric radiowave propagation was developed. It incorporates the refractive index
(determining the depth at which wave-bending begins), the 1000 year-old Snell's Law
, the carrier frequency of the signal, and the electron density at the pertinent depth of the ionospheric layer:
The constants to that formula were established 90 years ago but have remained classified since the early 1930s, censorship justified initially by the looming WWII. The Satellite Hoax emerged from behind the storm clouds of WWII
Armed with a complete formula, it would straightforward to direct a well-shaped Ku-band 12GHz microwave beam at an azimuth of some 215° into the F layer from, for example, Madagascar. The wave would be refracted back to earth (at an angle determined by Snell's Law) where, for those receiving it in Western Europe, it would be appear to be coming from a SES/ASTRA "geostationary comms satellite".A phony "satellite" footprint
Best guess is that is exactly what is happening. The "man-made satellite" exists only on the pages of childish sci-fi books from twerp-perps like Arthur C. Clarke.Satellite Hoaxster, Sir Arthur C. Clarke, exiled British pedophile
We are told that the SES ASTRA fleet of "geostationary comms satellites" each weighing a whopping 3000kg+ are orbiting at an altitude of 35,000km in the [Arthur C.] "Clarke Belt".
We are told that this ASTRA "satellite fleet" is responsible for broadcasting over 1,000 TV channels of mind-numbing garbage into Western Europe ("for a subscription of just £60 a month"!)
The myth of "satellite" TV is reaping enormous profits for "satellite owners" - not least for the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and his family, direct descendants of the ogrish House of Orange-Nassau. The obscenely wealthy grand duchy owns 94% of SES/ASTRA stock today.
The SES/ASTRA business, alone, is supposedly worth €7 billion. On top of that are the subscription revenues gouged out of us by the likes of Rupert Murdoch via his wretched BSkyB "satellite" TV operation.
But yet another layer of deceit is involved, to prop up this monstrous Hoax. It is the introduction of an artificial communications latency. This is to create the false impression that the "satellite" TV signal recovered and rendered by our idiot boxes
has travelled the 70,000km (35,000km up and 35,000km down) to and from the ASTRA "satellite" in the mythical Clarke Belt.
In truth, the signal takes the much shorter 2000km path from (roughly) east Africa, to the 300km height of the ionospheric F layer before its refraction back down to Europe, where the signal is recovered by our parabolic "satellite" dishes and receivers.
Since the speed of light in free space is 300,000,000 m/sec, this element of the hoax requires the introduction of an artificial latency of (7e7/3e8) seconds or some 250msecs. Roughly a quarter second of artificial delay is added to the signal. That fake latency is introduced trivially at the "head-end". And short of intercepting the up-wave before it actually hits the ionosphere, that aspect to the fraud is impossible to detect in the down-wave.Conjuring a satellite from thin air!
Now that's magic! And a big round of applause for the lovely
Debbie McGee, please!